Caroline introduced a number of ways to produce washes, using both a paintbrush and other materials to get varied effects. The first was with an upright board and brush:
- Wet on dry
- Wet on wet
Wet on dry: using a flat 1” brush and dark paint, not too water brush once across and drag down for a drop down effect
Wet in wet: using very clean water and wet paper, soak in for a minute. Paint across quickly…don’t over-work, then paint across.
Graded: Start with a sideways sweep and use less colour for a graded effect. Clouds can be inserted by using a balled tissue to remove the paint.
Note: Kurt Jackson used watery paint and turned the board sideways to dribble and splatters too!
Flat work using materials for application
Cling film: using strong colours, apply cling film and ruche it. Leave to dry before removing for a foliage effect. Can also be used for rocks, using dark brown, green and wet in wet red.
Washing-up liquid: can be used for waves by squirting into applied wet paint.
Dry brushing: on very dry paint, drag a dry brush across.
Fan brush: use to produce a wood grain effect
Oil pastels: use colour free pastels and make marks, then brush over with a wash of colour.
Salt: put on a wash, and quickly sprinkle on salt. Leave until fully dry before brushing off the salt. Good for a rain effect or snow on a dark ground.
Scratching: Apply the wash then then scratch with scissors to make trees. Scratch downwards so paint goes into runnels.